Bifid Zygomaticus Major Muscle: A Cadaver Anatomical Study with Photogrammetric Assistance

Stoltidou A., Dimitrakopoulos I., Pateraki M., Koebke J., Dionyssopoulos A.J., 2011. The Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery, 19, Supplement A, pp. 158A,  Proc. of 16th Congress of the International Confederation for Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 22-27 May, Vancouver, Canada. [pdf, p.158A]


INTRODUCTION: The Zygomaticus Major muscle belongs to the facial mimetic muscles, with a high degree of structural variability. It holds an important role in facial expression, as it is present in 97-100% of individuals. It is generally found as a single unit but sometimes bifurcates into two bundles. The inferior belly inserts at the confluence of the muscle below the corner of the mouth, into the anatomical structure area of the Modiolus.
METHODS: In 51 adult formalin fixed human cadavers, bilateral dissection of zygomaticus major muscles was performed. In order to define the dimensions of the muscle, we used markers of its anatomical details. Five consecutive color images for each cadaver were taken which underwent further evaluation, using the photogrammetric software i-Witness.
RESULTS: A double or bifid zygomaticus major was found in 12.8%, while a single form was present in 80%. The average length and width of the single form was 45.5 mm and 8.5 mm respectively. As the double zygomaticus major was concerned, the average width of the main muscle belly was 8.9 mm while the length was 50 mm. The average length and width of the superior bundle was 22 mm and 7.2 mm, while the average length and width of the inferior bundle was 27.6 mm and 6.1 mm respectively.
CONCLUSION: Zygomaticus Major and especially its bifid form contribute greatly to the formation of the Modiolus. This is of critical importance in several areas, such as plastic and craniofacial surgery, orthodontics, phonation and speech.

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